Food Crops News 140 update CASSVAVIET. “Vietnam cassava breeding overview: the broad perspective” including: 1) Overview of cassava breeding in Vietnam 1975-2012; 2) The lessons learned from Cassava in Vietnam and 3) Perspective and recommendation for projects 2013-2020
VIETNAM CASSAVA BREEDING OVERVIEW:
THE BROAD PERSPECTIVE*
Hoang Kim (1), Le Huy Ham (2), Manabu Ishitani (3), Hernan Ceballos (3), Nguyen Van Bo (2), Tran Ngoc Ngoan (4), Kazuo Kawano (3), Reinhardt Howeler (3), Rod Lefroy (3), Nguyen Phuong (1), Hoang Long (2), Nguyen Thi Le Dung (2), Tran Cong Khanh (2), Vo Van Quang (2), Dao Trong Tuan (1), Nguyen Minh Cuong (1), Nguyen Van Vu (2) and Nguyen Van Dong (2)
Cassava breeding and varietal dissemination in Vietnam has made continuous progress. In Vietnam, cassava is now the fourth most important food crop and an important source of cash income for small farmers, who either use it for animal feeding or for sale to starch factories. In 2011, cassava production was about 9.87 million tonnes, up from only 1.99 million tonnes in 2000. This was the result of both area expansions, from 237,600 ha in 2000 to 559,800 ha in 2011, and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 17.81 t/ha in 2011. There are now 68 cassava starch factories in operation with a total processing capacity of 8.8 million tonnes of fresh roots/year. Vietnam has recently developed an E10 policy requiring the production of 1,067 million liters of fuel-ethanol from 6.5 million tonnes of cassava fresh roots/year. Vietnam is now the second largest exporting country of cassava products while animal feed factories also contribute significantly to the increasing demand for cassava roots. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties in about 504,000 ha, and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. During the past decade (1991-2000) the Vietnam Cassava Program (VNCP), in cooperation with CIAT, Vedan and other cassava processing factories, has developed and disseminated six new high- yielding varieties: KM94, KM98-1, SM937-26, KM95, KM95-3 and KM60. Since the period 2001-2011, a total of 24,073 cassava sexual seeds from CIAT and 37,210 seeds from 15 cross combinations made in Vietnam, 38 breeding lines (mainly from Thailand, China, CIAT and Brazil), and 31 local farmers’ varieties, have been planted. Of these, 98 of the best lines are now in the final stages of the selection process, and the most promising KM140, KM98-5 and KM98-7 has recently been released. Up to now, 10 promising new clones have been tested, of which KM419 very high promising will be selected for release (Hoang Kim et al. 2012). The objectives for further genetic improvement on cassava cooperative research project under the East Asia Joint Research Program (e-ASIA JRP) in Vietnam focus on: 1) genetic cassava transformation, gene and promoter discovery, selection doubled haploid lines derived from materials of CIAT/VIETNAM, and applying mutation in cassava breeding to increase the yield potential and starch content and obtain early harvest ability, sustainable disease resistance and to improve the nutritional value. 2) Selection and dissemination of high-yielding varieties with high starch contents and high tolerance of pest and diseases for South East (SE), Central Highland (CH), South Central Cost (SCC), and North Mountain (NM) regions of Vietnam. Research on integrated cultivation techniques and transfer of appropriate cultivation techniques for improved cassava varieties in smallholder farming systems for main regions to increase the productivity and economic efficiency of cassava production in different eco- regions; to focus on on increasing a source of income and meeting the varied needs of rural communities for export and domestic use of bio ethanol, cassava starch, and animal feeds.
Key words: cassava breeding overview, perspective, cassava promising varieties; Vietnam.
*Presentation to Kickoff Meeting of a Cooperative Research Project under the East Asia Joint Research Program (e-ASIA JRP) at AGI, Hanoi on Jan.8 and 9, 2013. The Oganization of: AGI/e-Asia JRP/RIKEN; Dr. Le Huy Ham, Director General of AGI; Prof.Dr. Motoaki Seki, Team Leader, Plant Genomic Network Research Team, RIKEN Plant Science Center; Dr. Kishida Eriko e-ASIA Special Program Coordinator
1. Nong Lam University (NLU), http://hcmuaf.edu.vn Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc dist., Ho Chi Minh city. email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com; mob.+84 903613024; website http://foodcrops.vn; http://foodcrops.blogspot.com; http://cassavaviet.blogspot.com
2.Vietnam Academy Agricultural Sciences (VAAS), http://vaas.org.vn Thanh Tri, Hanoi,Vietnam, including Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI) and Institute of Agricultural Science for SVN (IAS)
3.International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, Colombia http://ciat.cgiar.org
4.College of Agro-Forestry (TUAF), http://tuaf.edu.vn/ Thai Nguyen University, Thai Nguyen, Vietnam
(Green Adress of KM419 in Daklak Địa chỉ xanh trồng mì cao sản KM419 ở Đăk Lăk)